ASCII by Jason Scott

Jason Scott's Weblog

The JSMESS Sound Emergency —

UPDATE: I’m happy to say a developer has come forward and we’re out of the woods on sound. It’s not perfect, but the web audio API isn’t perfect and we’re much better armed for interacting with it now. Thanks, everyone.


Spread this one far and wide.

It’s rare I get anything close to desperate, but we’re somewhere in the realm of “stunningly frustrated” and so I can see where things are going. I can state the problem simply, and hopefully you or someone who you can reach out to, can be the one to do the (likely minor) work to make this happen.

Essentially, JSMESS has a real sound issue.

MESS does not – the program handles sound nicely and stuff sounds really great, just like its recreation of computers and other features are great. In most cases, these amazing MESS features have translated nicely into JSMESS. But not sound.


I have thrown a lot of good people at this morass. We’ve done a massive amount of work trying to get sound to improve. We have cases where it is very nice, and cases where it is horrible, grating.

It is holding back the project, now. People want to hear the sound. Right now, it is simply not dependable to turn on at the Internet Archive. I want to be able to turn it on.

Like a lot of problems to solve with the web, we have two test cases you can try out: The Wizard test and the Criminal test.

Here is the Wizard Test. It’s an emulator playing the Psygnosis game “Wiz n’ Liz” on an emulated Sega Genesis. This is extremely tough on the browser – almost nothing can play it at 100% speed.

Here is the Criminal Test. It is an emulator playing Michael Jackson’s Smooth Criminal as rendered on a Colecovision. It is not tough on the browser at all. Almost everything should be able to do it at 100% or basically 100%.

In both cases, Firefox will play the emulator faster and will sound better. Chrome will generally do well, but will be slower. Internet Explorer will have zero sound. Safari… well, depends on the day. (And Opera is dead – it’s essentially a reskinned Chrome. As is Seamonkey a rebuilt Firefox.)


So, what do we know?

Well, part of this whole mess was a switch over to the Web Audio API. Mozilla’s browser had a nice format before that worked well, but only on Firefox. In theory, the new API will eventually work everywhere.

Here is a helpful chart describing that compatibility. So we’re working for this Web Audio API.

My belief is only a relatively small number of people will be able to help. I am happy to entertain all ideas, discuss all possibilities. You can come to #jsmess on EFNet if you have IRC, or you can just e-mail me at I am willing to spend all the time you need to ramp up, or try any suggestion.

In the past, fresh eyes have helped us greatly to get MESS to the fantastic position it is now, where it can play tens of thousands of programs for hundreds of platforms. Here’s hoping your fresh eyes might help us further.


A Very Big Sort, or The Epic of Deaccessioning —

This has been years in the making.


When my living space looked like this photo. it was just vaguely problematic. Considering what I do and what is specifically needed day to day, this project and storage situation was an issue.

But that was a while ago. Now we’re at this:


See, that’s seriously out of control.

There’s two main contributing factors to that state, which is that I had to quickly consolidate from other parts of the house I’m renting when space was needed for other items, and I simply did not have time to address incoming material when it came in, so it became a matter of just finding space for things mailed in and then saving it for later.

This is to say nothing of the shipping container, which currently looks like this:


So, that’s a lot of stuff. That’s a 40-year old’s ability to acquire material and bring it to bear into a storage space, with a splash of “divorced in 30s” and “moved out of the house”.

But here comes the big changes.

The book scanner is back up again. That provides me the ability to scan in materials before finding them a home elsewhere. My rule is nothing leaves the house in printed form unless it’s digitized in some fashion, and I have a copy of the digitization.

With the books scanned and going to a home, that then leaves magazines.

Magazines scanned and going to a home, that then leaves academic papers and proceedings.

Believe it or not, just getting those out will probably clear things up beyond belief – I’d say a MAJORITY of material in the container and my room are printed materials of this sort.

As I begin going through the books, I check for them on the Internet Archive’s Open Library site. I see if the book has been scanned already, and it’s quite shocking just how much the Archive has scanned over the past few years, then I know I don’t have to scan it. I spend a small portion of the time that I would have spent scanning adding some background information to the Open Library entry, so that the book has a better look. I also ensure the cover image looks good, and so on. Then it’ll go into a box of outgoing material.

With that going on, I’ll getting a pile of to-be-scanned books and an outgoing pile to be sent away. That brings up the next issue.

Where do they go?


I do not throw out books. Let’s repeat that – I do not throw out books. I go a little further, in fact, and I will not give the books to a place likely to throw out the books. I consider that up with the cowardly act of leaving your longtime pet with the vet to be put down, while you tearfully drive home. You did the deed, you just didn’t own up to taking responsibility. So I’m not donating/contributing these books to a place that is likely to toss them.

This cuts down the potential field dramatically.

For books related to games and gaming, a home is already in place – The International Center for Electronic Games at the Strong Museum, in Rochester, NY. I’ve built up a great reputation with those folks, and they are delighted to be getting that set of material. They don’t mess around. They get things done:


One of the reasons I really like them is that they have an honest research library and space you can work in – you can get a hotel nearby, and go in and do actual work involving having a table and even a locker to store the printed materials in between days. It’s what I really want for this.

Because, you see, it’s not about me having the most stuff. It really never was. I am not interested in going after as many lost collections as possible, pushing them into a bigger pile, and declaring victory. I want this stuff accessible and useful.

About 4-5 times in the last two years, people have approached me asking if I have X, and the answer, in 3 of them, is essentially that I do have X, but X is buried way the fuck down in the shipping container, and good goddamned luck. Well, that’s not right at all.

So off they’ll go.

The question that remains is where.

I’ll be packing these scanned-or-verified books into boxes, putting them in bags before doing so, and then looking for a place these will go.

The place will have to have a phone number, people on salary, and physical space dedicated to storing and accessing the materials.

I want to talk to them and I will probably want to tour them.

So that search begins – here’s hoping I find one.

In the meantime, now begins what I hope is the next phase – slimming down my collection while making it available to the maximum amount of people.

To the Scanner!


MindCandy: The Last Bright Star Before the Media Dims —


The MindCandy series got me started on this whole “get it down in a movie” trip.

Created with a love of the demoscene, a dedication to capturing the demos as accurately as possible, and most importantly explaining the entire process from beginning to end, MindCandy was a refreshing breath of air. DVDs, which were still relatively new in 2002, had a few weird examples of using the features in the format but few had the dedication to making the most of the format as MindCandy did.

As I began work on the BBS Documentary, it was MindCandy’s inspiration (and their staff) which gave me the push I needed to make the final DVD as nice as it could be.

MindCandy Volume 1: PC Demos was followed up a few years later by MindCandy Volume 2: Amiga Demos. It was in every way as good as the first. They sold pretty well – they made back the cost but they’ll never make back the time spent to make them.

Then, finally, they released MindCandy Volume 3. MindCandy was a Blu-Ray/DVD combo, and it did its best to use all the insane measures of Blu-Ray and bring the high-resolution captures of PC Demos to the next generation of media equipment. It is truly an exquisite package, of a near and dear quality.

But of course, times had changed.

vol3xThe trick of moving from CDs to DVDs, and from DVDs to Blu-Ray, has turned out to be a cul-de-sac in the journey of access to material. I saw this in 2010, and released GET LAMP with a gold coin because I knew it was going to be difficult to get people to buy physical media. By 2010, people were asking “Why can’t I download this”? And by 2011, people were asking “Why do I have to download this? Can’t I just stream it? Everywhere?” This world changed very fast.

Yes, there are still people who prefer the physical media. They want a nice package, a sense of an experience when they get the show in their mail. They are a shrinking group, and while they should be catered to, they are out of the realm of the majority of people. Some even think they’re part of this group and they seriously are not. Not really.

It’s pretty obvious where the world is heading, and so this graphical treat by Hornet (who designed the DVD and software to do amazing captures that are still used by the Demoscene) is the bright brilliant sunset of a spectacular triptych of works.

The model these guys should have gone with should have been Patreon (make top-quality exports and contextual interviews about demos, and release a set for money each month), but they didn’t have Patreon until recently, so here we are. A missed boat.

MindCandy 1 and MindCandy 2 sold out of their DVD media years ago. In response, MindCandy has released both of these products as Creative Commons-licensed downloads. You can grab them both from the site.


And now the last volume has been given a viking funeral, with the remaining stock being dropped to $12. I’m sure they’re taking a bath on this. The announcement said they made 2,500 copies and this was the last 700. Since this came out three years ago (2011), that’s slow sales and I’m sure this was a huge expense.

So, my learned advice to you is this: buy this artifact, this excellent work and package as it rounds out a short but sweet arc of physical media meant to be the next generation.

Oh, and it’s top-notch.


Rise of the Screen Shotgun —

Continuing the thoughts I had in the previous entry, I’ve been working on a side-project to improve access to all the software and console games I’ve been uploading to the archive.

To some percentage of the populace, it is a simple and obvious thing, but that’s how a lot of efficient breakthroughs happen – doing simple and obvious things.

Forever. To everything.

Expanding out the console living room collection on to 2,300 cartridges representing 21 console systems had a not-entirely-unexpected side effect: it blew up the volunteer metadata gang. When things were in the hundreds with these cartridges, a small handful of folks could add some descriptions and other metadata pairs to the entries and reasonably get through them all. Not so anymore.

I’ve got some brave individuals moving through the sets, and they’re heroes to me for doing so. But the pain of a couple thousand cartridges will be nothing to the inevitable hundreds of thousands of individual disks I’m going to end up ingesting. There’s multiple thousands of disks in my room as we speak, not to mention all the other collections I’m working to make playable. It doesn’t scale. It can’t. But I’ve got a step in the right direction.

Mused about by Andrew Perti in the metadata-entry IRC channel we’re hanging out with, and implemented by myself and Kyle Way, is a system I’m calling the Screenshotter or the Screen Shotgun, depending on your mood and taste.

The goal with it is to automate, 100%, the creation of screenshots and informative image grabs of these many, many software projects with essentially zero or minimal human intervention. I’ve been running it for about a week.

It is working very, very well.

00_coverscreenshot (4)00_coverscreenshot00_coverscreenshot (1)00_coverscreenshot (2)Again, these are generated automatically – other than writing the robot that’s doing this, I didn’t make them happen and I certainly didn’t sit there doing screengrabs and turning them into usable, clickable screenshots. And I definitely didn’t shove them into Internet Archive entries for the software items – that was done by a script.

It gets better, too. Click on this image:

Alex_Kidd_in_the_Enchanted_Castle_1988_Sega_JP_en_screenshotIt’s an animated GIF file, and it goes on for a while. It’ll show the title screen, some credits, and a little bit of gameplay (in this case, attract mode gameplay). It’ll be possible to say “re-generate this, but press this key at the end”, so I can finesse some of these (hence it being “minimal” human interaction – I can nudge if I look at dozens of screenshotted programs and realize a software item fell down).

Having these screenshots often verifies a ton of properties: who made it, what kind of program it is (miscategorized?), what the selections are (if it shows a menu), and what one might expect if it’s run in JSMESS – since it is being run in JSMESS.

It’s a simple enough process. Steal it from me and refine it.


A machine that will be living the doomed life of eternally playing software packages is installed with:

  • An X server (Actually Xvfb, which is a virtual X server used for testing which has a fraction of the space).
  • A copy of Firefox.
  • ImageMagick, that eternal, ubiquitous bastard of image manipulation.
  • Fdupes.
  • The Internet Archive Command-Line Interface.

Some of that you likely know about, others you might not. They’re all readily available, however, and not that secret.

On a very high level, here’s what my script does.

  • Assume the X server is running.
  • Start firefox, running the JSMESS emulator/player for a piece of software
  • Wait roughly 50 seconds (about how long it takes the JSMESS “machine” to boot on my shared, weighed down server).
  • Take 40 screenshots, cropped to JUST the JSMESS player window, with a 4 second delay between each.
  • Run FDUPES against the 40 resulting screenshots, to get rid of shots of static or unchanging images. Sometimes this pulls it down to a single shot, and other times all 40 stay.
  • Upload the resulting full-size unique screenshots into the Internet Archive item, making one the “representative” based on (ahem) being the largest. (This actually works pretty well – often the largest is the one with the most variety, hence often the title screen or gameplay).
  • Compress the screenshots into an animated GIF and upload that.
  • Get rid of all the evidence, and kill Firefox.

Obviously, things can go wrong, but among the things that go wrong that are my favorite are where the resulting screenshot gives an error about the software itself:


In this way, the software is basically doubling duty as a free-labor Quality Assurance department, making it instantly obvious as I walk the collections that Something Was A Little Off. Often it’s a simple matter of making a slight change to the emulator parameters or putting the software into a quiet corner because it just doesn’t work. That’s less frustration for future users, and one less concern that the collection is accessible.

screenshot_02 (1)

Notably, this destroys the Screenshot Economy.

There’s a certain amount of work that exists to generate metadata or representative imagery related to, well, anything. But in this case, the work needed is to generate representative screenshots, attach them to the right name, and keep track of them. It’s both simple and boring yet annoying enough that if someone “stole” your screenshots, you might get really angry at them. You might even watermark your screenshots, since you slaved away putting all of them together. You might hound people you saw as lifting the screenshots away, even though they’re using them as purely informative purposes and you yourself didn’t really generate any of the art inside.

Whatever, to that debate. I’m about to put either tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of screenshots up. And you can use them any darn way you please. The Screenshotgun will not get angry with you. And I just follow the Screenshotgun’s lead.


There are solid debate chunks available for the Gift Horse Dental Inspection Squad, of course. These are screenshots off an emulator, for example – if you want “true authentic” screenshots as one might take off a monitor, then these are not those. Some folks might not be happy that the Screenshot Economy has been taken down with a flood of “inferior” images, and the old adage of Perfect is the Enemy of Done can rear its head. Obviously, the emulator can be dinged in terms of color reproduction, aspect ratio, brightness/sharpness, and how it renders the graphics/text related to the original hardware. No doubt some of that error-ridden mess will creep into the crop.

I am not worried.

Over time, this process will refine itself. Right now, I have to do some initial setup related to the cropping of the emulator. Different machines yield slightly different Firefox rendering, and with that comes the window showing up at different coordinates. After I get the machine done for that screenshot robot, however, it can just be run, again and again, and most importantly, it can run in a way where it overwrites a previous screenshotting, replacing old bad with new good. I suspect that as time goes on, revisions or improvements to the simple scripting I have in place will handle contingencies of keypresses, performance, detecting bad frames, and so on.

Until then… many, many software items on’s Console Living Room and ultimately the entire software collection are going to get some excellent illustration, essentially out of thin air. And it won’t murder a volunteer or pile of volunteers to do it. Give me a week or two to get all the consoles properly filled with these screenshots, and then enjoy the beginning of a world where you can see what’s coming if you click the emulation link.

If you want a picture of the future, imagine a rack-mounted server joylessly playing videogames and taking screenshots.


00_coverscreenshot (5)

The Robot Army of Good Enough —

(I do not speak for my employer. I am just very loud.)

Pretty much any organization of any size has certain themes, beliefs and outlooks baked into them. Some of them might be obvious from the outside. Others are so inherent that the members might not even notice they’re completely steeped in it.


At the Internet Archive, there’s a philosophy set about access and acceptance of materials and presentation of said materials that’s pretty inherent throughout the engineering and the website. Paraphrased, in my own words, it’s this:

  • Always provide the original.
  • Never ask why a user wants something.
  • Now is better than tomorrow.
  • We can hold it.
  • Many inexpensively is better than one or none luxuriously.
  • Never send a person where a machine can go.
  • Enjoy yourself.

Some of this exhibits itself in how people use the site – they can grab anything, they can get a “library card” account but they don’t have to, and they can embed or direct-download anything they want. While the machines will derive out versions of the content, you can always find that massive .AVI, .PDF or .WAV that the content came from. They don’t keep user logs to any real degree. They don’t get in the way.

Internally, the rest shows itself in engineering and code – use commodity hardware which will break more often but which can be bought in much greater amounts instead of “Ol’ Trusty” that’s intended to work for five years without fail and “Ol’ Trusty” is all we have because we can’t afford more. The code will put an item up before it’s fully “baked”, that is, you’ll see the original .AVI file for a video item and maybe 20-60 minutes later, another derivation will show up, and then maybe another one after that. This sliding window of material population really confuses the end users in some cases, I’m sure. But it means you get it now, now, now, instead of when it’s all wrapped in a bow.

As things currently stand, and based on my now three years (!) of working for the organization and going out into the world to speak about the place and get feedback, the resulting good and bad of this approach is this:

  • Good: Nobody is doing what we’re doing in many cases, we have so much stuff, every time I wander there I lose an evening walking the stacks.
  • Bad: The site looks like poop, and it’s pretty hard to find the stuff.

So, to get out ahead of “poop look”, efforts are underway to redesign the site, and what I’ve seen, I really like. That’s all I’ll say because it’s not my project.

Regarding finding material and there being stuff, I think the priorities of the Archive have been really firm and right-minded: get the stuff first, quibble on accessibility or presentation later. Turning things away is how tragedy happens. What’s worse – something was taken in and put into a big storehouse? Or something was offered, and because it failed to have a MARC record or a metadata post-it-note on the outside of the archival-quality container file, it was sent back out into the night?

But the real miracle, the one that is perhaps really not obvious from the outside, is how much of the Internet Archive’s work is done by machinery and code.

When an item is uploaded, the user can designate and mention all sorts of aspects of what was sent in – the title, the description, when it was made, who made it, and a bunch of other interesting data attributes. The format allows a lot of extension, so if you want to indicate which of the 300 audio files you uploaded have dog sounds and which ones are recorded using a specific type of microphone, you can do that. It might not mesh with other items all that well, but that’s not your problem – you’re adding things that a machine might not ever know.

But a set of machines at the Archive do know a lot about your item, and will do work to add it all and create other versions of your item. For example, you can upload a .zip file of .jpeg images, and if you happen to name it *, it will create a .PDF file of it, an OCR’d version of any text in it, and an animated GIF file of the pages. With movies, it will take a massive .AVI and it will create a thumbnail set, a web-ready version (if it can), and so on. And bear in mind, this collection of tests is massive – it tries to determine the average pixels per inch, the orientation of texts, the framerate of the video, the number of tracks in a collection of MP3s and if there’s any tagging built in. It does a lot. And most importantly, with zero human intervention.

evaluateAnd here’s where the “controversy” happens.

By “controversy”, of course, I mean “people murmuring under their breath in the area of disciplines the Archive overlaps with”. Other organizations and practicioners of the arts of archiving, you see, have their own baked-in philosophies and credos, spoken and unspoken. And they don’t exactly see eye to eye.

Some I’ve encountered and observed:

  • Machines can’t beat people.
  • Zero metadata beats inaccurate metadata.
  • Digital is a Cult. Physical is a Truth.
  • Another six months won’t hurt.
  • Who are you and why do you want this?
  • Pick a format, document it utterly, and use it forever.
  • Justify, Justify, Justify

There’s many more. Some come from policy, some from personality, and some from how people are brought up into the discipline. We’ve destroyed the term “disruptive” as being meaningful in discussions, but the concept that a new outlook or idea could fundamentally change the nature of the realm it is part of is still quite valid. To some extent, the Internet Archive is an upending of century-old approaches, while still loving and promoting the shared beliefs:

  • Our history depends on our artifacts and writings.
  • Education without context is flimsy and transient.
  • Reading is fundamental.
  • What happened before is important tomorrow.
  • Humanity is worth the trouble.

In my capacity in outreach, I find myself in a lot of conferences, restaurant tables, hallways and sidewalks talking to people who believe in these shared beliefs but don’t buy 100% into what the Archive is up to. They question whether a Robot Army is the way to do this inherently human activity, that of cataloging and classifying, of summarizing and representing.

The problem, ironically, is that people think of it as binary: all machine, all people.

Where we are now, the machine takes a rough stab and occasionally a refined stab at what comes in the front door. It will try to OCR the text, it’ll figure out the orientation or how many pages or what baked in records exist in the digital object, and it will report those. It would also appreciate your input as uploader, thank you very much, but it doesn’t stop dead waiting for you, either.

To this end, the resulting output, especially the machine-generated side, is not perfect. But most importantly, it can be overruled. Always. It can always be shoved aside as “that’s not perfect, this is perfect”, but the amount of items getting that “perfect” treatment are going to always be a small percentage of total. They just are.


So, this week, I was working on a way to make the endless piles of texts on the Archive more accessible. The solution I cooked up was to take the OCR’d text generated for all “texts” classified objects, throw them into a word frequency generator, remove the obvious stupid ones, and put that up into the Archive. That actually has worked out pretty well.

It’s not, perfect, of course. Never perfect. But here’s what it returned (and put up) in 10 seconds of analysis on a 945 (!) page book on Architecture:

figure; landscape; design; standards; soil; concrete; architecture; water; surface; aggregate; landscape architecture; saver standards; asphalt concrete; tor landscape; standards tor; water table; water level; standards lor; lor landscape

The “standards lor” stuff doesn’t fly – it’s an error. But the vast, vast majority of it is what a person might reasonably need to know “what the hell is this book about”. You can make decisions in a very short time if this is the book you want to browse through. You have more information than you had before.

Similarly, you can probably guess what these books are about from the keywords:

software; ibm; computer; graphics; apple; color; disk; program; commodore; game; hard drive; hard disk; word processor; disk drive; megabyte hard; deluxe paint; sale price; retail price; public domain
moog; modular; output; arturia; modulation; input; filter; frequency; manual; sequencer; moog modular; modulation input; connection jack; key follow; low pass; keyboard follow; audio output; audio input; input connection; trigger input
iso; wedding; lovegrove; julie; bride; pictures; chapter; shoot; shot; picture; wedding day; wedding photography; light matters; healthy profits; business strategies; wedding photographers; opposite figs; finoncial mastery; exposure compensation

Again, perfect? No. But each of these was generated, automatically, and without a miserable intern or low-paid person doing a job that would probably never be funded in the first place. But those keywords tell you a lot, and they’re getting the job done, even if you have to keep an eye out for what exactly “finoncial mastery” is.

And frankly, nothing stops the addition of a second set of scripts for quality control, that provide lists of all the generated tags and allowing a person to go “that one doesn’t look quite right” and to have it taken away. The difference is, now it’ll be one person overseeing hundreds or thousands of items at once, using the brainpower so that in one weekday they will do more resulting work than a year of the most highly-trained, perfect and precious professional dedicated to metadata entry. And in the case of the Issue of “Compute!” Magazine, the Moog Synthesizer Manual, and the Professional Wedding Photographer book above, you’ll get what you need, now now now.


And as a side note: I love this is what my mind is being used for. I love that I work for a place where this sort of thinking is what is needed. And I love what the result of this effort is – a place where millions of items are flying out the front door every single day, spirited away for a thousand reasons, and making the world a better place.

I can’t imagine doing anything else. Keyword: “happiness”.





Saved! Sort of. —

As time goes on, people begin to use phrases like “saved” when it comes to Archive Team projects. That’s not quite accurate.

If a website or webpage is simple, utilizing only images and text, chances are pretty good that we can get a reasonable copy of it. If, however, it utilizes any strange scripting, access control, or any of the modern craziness that we see on the web, things become pretty dark pretty quickly. Sometimes photo galleries have JavaScript zoom, or some of them use YouTube or some other services to feed out the video. Our scraping falls apart if you need some sort of plug-in or program to do even the simplest of maneuvers.

In the case of, for example, Hyves, a whole bunch of different problems are showing themselves in the saved pages. Part of its power and character were that people could modify all sorts of different things on the page, and you would see fundamental differences from site to site. Even as we were grabbing websites at the rate of fifteen a second, we knew we were going to miss things.


That said…

One of the most inspiring parts of the release of the geocities torrent, was the amount of work and curation that is been done with the data by Dragan Espenschied, who not only downloaded and analyzed the resulting files carefully, he’s created reports, graphs and discuss the errors and mistakes made along the way. His and Olia Lialina ongoing tumblr weblog gives snapshots of pages long gone, with commentary and themes. He even had direct state funding for a year to re-create a virtual machine that could provide GeoCities pages comprehensively and easily.

My hope is that some academics, researchers and other people who have an investment in the history of Hyves will go through our 25 TB of data and help re-created in a more robust and involved fashion. I’m not sure what we come out the other end, but there is a record of what happened there no matter how shallow it might be in some places.

I compared it to the difference between seeing a picture of your home and having artifacts from inside the home: maybe you want the second, but the picture might be enough for you to remember a lot that you might’ve forgotten.

The resulting items will be tattered in some places, perfect on others – we are not saving the domains, or the full context of what this all was. We’re just stopping pure oblivion from occurring in the name of progress and percieved liability. It’s a minor point, but an important one.


The Archive Team has taken many millions of snapshots of many homes. Many are long gone and we pack our little WARC files and .TAR archives and send them into the annals of history. Here’s hoping the future appreciates it.

Letter to David Stiles —

Mr. Stiles:

I’m sure you get a bunch of these letters all the time, but I figured I’d add myself to the pile.

I don’t know when I first got my hands on your Treehouse book, but based on the publication date, I guess it was when I was 10 or 11. This is the one with the brown paper and the comb binding, that was bound at the top, so that it was like a big notepad.


This book affected me profoundly in many different ways.

Obviously, it inspired me to think about making treehouses, and access to my parents’ workbench in the basement coupled with an awful lot of suburban trees meant that I was able to find a host of victims throughout the entire summer. I have memories of finding 2x4s at construction sites or thrown away from various other projects and turning them into the building blocks of palaces heretofore unseen. Naturally, a 10 year old working alone or with friends leads to the occasional injury, and a thankfully-post-tetanus-shot shoe puncture or two, but boy, did I have fun. I think of those initial projects, one or two almost approached the realm of functionality, at least in allowing me to survey the forest or my parents’ yard from the height of 5 to 7 feet, which wasn’t so bad at all.


More than that, though, your book contained a number of other important lessons and inspirations.

As I’m sure you intended, the book takes a very open and free spirit with regards to both design and scope – you show how one, two, three or four trees can still result in a treehouse, and every treehouse could be an exploration of a host of ideas. I loved these different places you suggested, covered as they were with kids having fun and getting the most out of what they had. Your flourishes in terms of pets, decorations, and bystanders to the fun made it obvious these were not going to be solitary works of architecture but parts of people’s lives. It’s guided a lot of how I approach the things I build, physical and virtual, since then.


And most notably, the whole unusual (for me, at the time) design of the book, with a sense of being this strangely-bound book on off-color paper, made me feel like making “a book” wasn’t a case of always being a perfect bound piece of “literature” with just words and the occasional illustration – this book was full of life and strangeness and notes about being outdoors and part of the world, that I think I’ve internalized to a huge degree.


Anyway, I wanted to thank you for your book that is more than just a book, and was more than just something to read for me so many years ago.

Jason Scott

David and Jeanie Stiles

David and Jeanie Stiles

Three Times the Consoles, Three Times the Carts, Three Times the Library —

Please excuse the dust.


For the last couple of weeks I’ve been working with a range of volunteers on a massive expansion of what we call the Console Living Room at the Internet Archive. Previously weighing in at about 800 game cartridges from seven console systems, the new collection is roughly 2300 cartridges and a total of 21 different consoles. Through a combination of JavaScript, black magic, and unicorn tears, all of these games are playable directly in your browser without plug-ins. Not just confined to the big winners in the console game biz, this collection now spans 25 years, multiple iterations of technology, and a breathtaking range of subject matter for entertainment and education.

In other words, if you had this over at your house, you’d either be a museum or the richest kid in your neighborhood.

Making video games playable in browsers is a small but fun percentage of what the JSMESS project is attempting to achieve. Like most projects involving emulation, the urge to just make it look like we want to screw around with Pac-Man clones and our favorite platformers is pretty huge. But this is much, much more than that.

The reason that consoles make such an easy combination for something like JavaScript is that the control schemes are relatively simple, the scope of the programs are properly limited, and once you have things going, they pretty much go. The one exception is speed, where you notice any slowdowns or missing features faster than one might do with, say, a spreadsheet. But consoles are a delightful example of “what you see is what you get”.


Let’s start simple. The average development time of a console game has been as little as a month and as long as a year, with a few multi-year efforts. Development teams range from a single person to a few dozen. Money spent is somewhere between the thousands and the hundreds of thousands, with a few millions sprinkled here and there. The marketing and advertising and paper filled with ink about these games goes into hundreds of thousands of pages. The audience for the games has progressively built up its own corpus, the overviews and newsletters and family forums, for decades now.

A few million ancillary items here and there, and suddenly we’re talking about a culture.

What I am seeking with this material, presented in such a large mass and so openly available, is to remove any time delay between a reference to this software and access to the software itself. This is what we get with websites, movies, music, and text: you reference it, and seconds later, there it is.

Now we’re going to get the same with a mass of games.

Naturally, it doesn’t take long for the glorious human mind to be faced with these thousands of programs, marvel at them for a whopping 30 seconds, and then start pointing out what’s missing. For this natural reaction, all I can do is point at various limits or choices that are in place, knowing that we have a lot of time on our side, and improvements to the emulator and the world at large likely loom. We just tripled the amount of consoles and tripled the amount of available programs. And what crazy stuff have we revealed!

Obscurity is no excuse for items not appearing here. We’ve got game consoles with as few as four released cartridges, or even a breathtaking 50. And we’ve got cartridges that would fetch thousands of dollars on the open market, playable instantly. Unfortunately, unlike jewelry or paintings, obscure consoles and cartridges do not guarantee quality or replayability. But you’ll get by.

I hinted at construction references at the beginning of this. That’s because with so many items being added it once, and the information about them scattered in so many directions, there are entries that are needlessly empty and links that are still waiting to happen. But they’re playable, a little fooling around will let you decode what’s going on, and frankly, many of these games defied the need for an instruction manual or even more than 30 seconds of study. I guarantee you’ll figure out what kills you and what gives you bonus points in a very short period of time. Meanwhile, the metadata nightmare will fade.

I reached out to many volunteers to help with metadata entry, and anybody who works in that business understands that the stickiness rate tends to be rather low. Face an eager and wide-eyed volunteer with the prospect of endless recounting of details about obscure video games, and the urge to go watch a video of somebody watching paint dry becomes irresistible.

But every once in a while, some angel make themselves known and there’s more than a few angels behind-the-scenes on this one. Soon you’ll know the story on tons of video games that once clogged department store shelves and which almost nobody experienced before now.

So, speaking of which, the main point of why I’m bringing this all up.

The last time I announced that such items were being added to the Internet archive, I put out a call with a challenge. It was answered to some degree, but I wanted it answered even more loudly this time: now what?

With a simple link (and in the future embed code) you will be able to direct readers, colleagues, students, or relatives towards a breathtaking variety of games. You could provide your own personal oral history of interacting with the game and your use. You can link to a variety of games to demonstrate the approach to the Pac-Man game mechanic over the decades. You can show the initial steps taken by a developer or coder and then show that person’s progression over the years. You can instruct students to play a number of platformers and attempt to write on the political implications of resource management in platform first.

In other words, this console living room is a console library.

And this library wants patrons!

I fully intend to expand the library over time, but we’ve got a pretty sizable chunk of videogame history here. I want to see it referenced, written about, and improve based on feedback.

Is that so wrong?

Do me proud.


Some members of the art group Monochrom have gotten into the world of movie-making and I think you might just enjoy the living hell out of it. It’s called DIE GSTETTENSAGA.

GSTETTENSAGA is the best kind of low-budget filmmaking: science-fiction collides with mythology and political satire, and a landscape both gray and filled with colorful personalities. The characters each have their own agenda, their own wishes, and find themselves at odds with almost everyone else. Some want power of the political kind, while others want power to drive the simplest of electronic appliances. Everyone is searching for something, and we are dragged along in many different directions as they both find what they’re looking for and find something completely different.

There are times when I feel I’m watching an absurdist play by Beckett, if Beckett decided to work on the Mad Max franchise. Darkness falls, daylight breaks, and each turn in our journalist team’s adventure brings something new and weird to the table. While there’s times I have no idea what I’m looking at, I’m definitely always enjoying looking at it.

I’m sure we have many more amazing cinematic works from the DIE GSTETTENSAGA creative team in the future.

Five Unemulated Computer Experiences —

While I and many others work to turn the experience of emulation into one as smooth and ubiquitous as possible, inevitably the corners and back alleys of discussions about this process present people claiming that there are unemulated aspects and therefore the entire project is doomed.

I thought I would stoke that sad little fire by giving you five examples of entirely unemulated but perfectly valid vintage computer experiences.

Disk Drive Spin Vibration

Some games on home computers would feature permanent player death and the requirement to start over in the event of a catastrophic loss. To ensure the death was permanent, the player status would have to be recorded on a floppy disk drive with a floppy disk in it. Therefore, a trick could be implemented: by putting your finger underneath the latch of a floppy disk drive, you could feel the vibration of the disk beginning to spin, and you could flip up the drive door, disengaging the magnetic head and ensuring that the death was not recorded.

Computer Fans

There are currently no attempts to emulate the sound of a computer fan or have it speed up and slow down slightly over time, eventually reflecting the decay of the fan and the steadily noisier experience as time goes on. In a tangential relation, there are currently no emulations of system failure due to overheating.

Chip Unseating

One common cause of machine issues in older systems would be the slow working out of seated chips on motherboards and other circuits. The resulting glitches and behavior would be noticed by experienced owners, resulting in a reseating of the chips, either by full-board pressure or by pressing down on individual chips and experiencing the clicking into place.

Damaged Floppy Noise

One of the most terrifying and disheartening sounds was the sound of a distraught grinding across a damaged or demagnetized portion of a floppy disk. The noise told you that it was going to be a crapshoot whether the data would ever be heard from again. Variations in the sound also told you how close you were to total data loss, and whether you were at the beginning of a slow decline for that sector.

Power Outage

Emulators do not have an option for sudden and dramatic loss of power. Is not possible to indicate a lightning strike, a brownout, a black out, or the yanked out power cord. This is a central and fundamental aspect of the Atari 2600, where careful glitching of a system including yanking and replacing cartridges could allow you to access game options and experiences that would otherwise never be reached.


The point of me bringing all these up is not to be particularly weird, but to point out that emulation is not a binary experience – it is a continuum, a spectrum. For some people, the mere reappearance of older computing information is a miracle. For others, it is a endless opportunity to point out flaws, complain about glitches, and otherwise drag the conversation into a Xeno’s paradox of unfulfilled promises and impossibly high hurdles.

As time goes on, I expect some experiences to fall by the wayside, and to live only in lore and stories. Unfortunately, that is the nature of history, and computers don’t get a pass, just because the material involved gets re-created with such fidelity.

So, let’s focus on what’s been done and refine that, instead of a mystical set of experiences that may never see the light of day again except in our stories.